Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are types of adverse drug events (ADEs). ADEs include ADRs, medication errors, and other drug-related problems. ADEs are the negative

Tolerance may be defined as either (1) the loss of effect over time to the same dose of a drug or (2) the need for more of a drug over…

A few individuals respond to drugs in a highly unusual and unpredictable manner, giving a response quantitatively much different than in the average patient. For example some patients may have…

In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the development of new drug products and their subsequent marketing. One of the FDA’s functions is to promote and…

An aptamer is a single-stranded oligonucleotide that binds to and inactivates a specific target, usually a protein. Several properties of aptamers make them attractive therapeutic agents similar to, but potentially better…

Biopharmaceuticals are defined as substances produced in living systems by biotechnology and used for therapeutic purposes or in vivo diagnostics. Because of the way they are made, these agents are often…

Therapeutic antibodies are precisely targeted biopharmaceuticals that recognize and bind to a cell surface antigen and then trigger a biological response. The therapeutic antibody may itself be the drug, or may…

Green pharmacy is the design of pharmaceutical products and processes that eliminate or reduce significantly the use and generation of hazardous substances and

A term coined by Gary Henderson, contemporary pharmacologist, meaning an illicitly produced drug of abuse whose structure is a modification of a preexisting drug in order to bypass existing drug laws…

Pharmacogenomics is the study of the effect of an individual’s genetic inheritance, their genome, on the body’s response to drugs. It is a broader study of multiple genes and their alleles,…