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Adverse Drug Reactions

in Dictionary Online

Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are types of adverse drug events (ADEs). ADEs include ADRs, medication errors, and other drug-related problems. ADEs are the negative

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Drug Tolerance

in Dictionary Online

Tolerance may be defined as either (1) the loss of effect over time to the same dose of a drug or (2) the need for more of a drug over time to get the same effect. Tolerance, at first, appears counterintuitive because addition of more of an activating ligand lessens the elicited response. [wp_ad_camp_5] Recall, however, that receptor number and receptor sensitivity are dynamic and that signaling can adjust based on the conditions of ligand availability. Given that drugs often times act…

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Idiosyncrasy

in Dictionary Online

A few individuals respond to drugs in a highly unusual and unpredictable manner, giving a response quantitatively much different than in the average patient. [wp_ad_camp_5]For example some patients may have an intense response to a very small dose of the drug, whereas others may not respond to very high doses. The response may also be qualitatively different in some situations, with new pharmacological effects being observed. Such responses, referred to as drug idiosyncrasy or idiosyncratic response, are infrequent and believed…

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The FDA

in Dictionary Online

In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the development of new drug products and their subsequent marketing. One of the FDA’s functions is to promote and protect public health by helping safe and effective drug products reach the market in a timely manner, and to monitor these products for continued safety after they are in use. In addition to conventional and biologic drugs, the FDA regulates related products such as tissues for transplantation, medical devices, veterinary drug…

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Aptamers

in Dictionary Online

An aptamer is a single-stranded oligonucleotide that binds to and inactivates a specific target, usually a protein. Several properties of aptamers make them attractive therapeutic agents similar to, but potentially better than, antibodies. They act in the same way as MAbs by folding into a three-dimensional structure based on their nucleic acid sequence to bind to their target. The smaller size of aptamers compared with MAbs might enable them to easily reach targets that are not readily exposed on the cell…

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