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Pharmaceutical terms explained

Antisense Drugs

in Dictionary Online
How antisense drugs work

Definition, Designing Technology and Mechanism  Antisense drugs are drugs that seek to block DNA transcription or RNA translation in order to moderate many disease processes. Antisense drugs consist of nucleotides linked

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Kefauver-Harris Drug Amendments 1962

in Dictionary Online

The amendment was a response to the Thalidomide tragedy, in which thousands of children were born with birth defects as a result of their mothers taking thalidomide for morning sickness during pregnancy. The bill by U.S. Senator Estes Kefauver, of Tennessee, and U.S. Representative Oren Harris, of Arkansas, required drug manufacturers to provide proof of the effectiveness and safety of their drugs before approval. It should be noted that Thalidomide had not been approved for use in the United States…

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Spirits

in Dictionary Online

Spirits are alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solutions of volatile substances. Generally, the alcoholic concentration of spirits is rather high, usually over 60%. Because of the greater solubility of aromatic or volatile substances in alcohol than in water, spirits can contain a greater concentration of these materials than the corresponding aromatic waters. When mixed with water or with an aqueous preparation, the volatile substances present in spirits generally separate from the solution and form a milky preparation. [wp_ad_camp_4]Spirits may be used pharmaceutically as…

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Liniments

in Dictionary Online

Liniments are alcoholic or oleaginous solutions or emulsions of various medicinal substances intended to be rubbed on the skin. Liniments with an alcoholic or hydroalcoholic vehicle are useful when rubefacient, counterirritant, or penetrating action is desired; oleaginous liniments are employed primarily when massage is desired. By their nature, oleaginous liniments are less irritating to the skin than alcoholic liniments. [wp_ad_camp_4]Liniments are not applied to skin areas that are broken or bruised because excessive irritation might result. The vehicle for a liniment…

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Clinical Trial

in Dictionary Online

[Syn. clinical investigation, clinical study] any systematic and carefully designed study on medicinal products in human subjects whether in patients or non-patient volunteers; the aim of a clinical trial is to discover or verify the effects of, and identify any adverse reaction to (investigational) products and to study their absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion in order to ascertain the efficacy and safety of the product. [wp_ad_camp_4]A clinical trial can be either prospective (nonrandomized observational cohort, randomized controlled – frequently double-blind…

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