How Are Drugs Used Clinically in Patients? The study of the therapeutic uses and effects of drugs in patients is called pharmacotherapeutics. The focus of pharmacotherapy is the patient, not…

Montelukast is a selective and orally active leukotriene receptor antagonist that inhibits the cysteinyl leukotriene CysLT4 receptor. Cysteinyl leukotrienes and leukotriene receptor occupation have been correlated with the pathophysiology of…

Novo Nordisk is a global healthcare company with 90 years of innovation and leadership in diabetes care. The company also has leading positions within haemophilia care, growth hormone therapy and hormone replacement…

Definition, Designing Technology and Mechanism  Antisense drugs are drugs that seek to block DNA transcription or RNA translation in order to moderate many disease processes. Antisense drugs consist of nucleotides…

Often called ‘‘complementary and alternative medicine,’’ this group of medical practices has also been termed ‘‘unconventional,’’ ‘‘unorthodox,’’ ‘‘unproven,’’ and even ‘‘quackery.’’ Because these terms have significant negative connotations, terms such as ‘‘alternative medicine’’ are preferred.…

Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are types of adverse drug events (ADEs). ADEs include ADRs, medication errors, and other drug-related problems. ADEs are the negative

Tolerance may be defined as either (1) the loss of effect over time to the same dose of a drug or (2) the need for more of a drug over…

A few individuals respond to drugs in a highly unusual and unpredictable manner, giving a response quantitatively much different than in the average patient. For example some patients may have…

The amendment was a response to the Thalidomide tragedy, in which thousands of children were born with birth defects as a result of their mothers taking thalidomide for morning sickness…

Spirits are alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solutions of volatile substances. Generally, the alcoholic concentration of spirits is rather high, usually over 60%. Because of the greater solubility of aromatic or volatile substances…