How Are Drugs Used Clinically in Patients? The study of the therapeutic uses and effects of drugs in patients is called pharmacotherapeutics. The focus of pharmacotherapy is the patient, not…

Often called ‘‘complementary and alternative medicine,’’ this group of medical practices has also been termed ‘‘unconventional,’’ ‘‘unorthodox,’’ ‘‘unproven,’’ and even ‘‘quackery.’’ Because these terms have significant negative connotations, terms such as ‘‘alternative medicine’’ are preferred.…

The amendment was a response to the Thalidomide tragedy, in which thousands of children were born with birth defects as a result of their mothers taking thalidomide for morning sickness…

[Syn. clinical investigation, clinical study] any systematic and carefully designed study on medicinal products in human subjects whether in patients or non-patient volunteers; the aim of a clinical trial is…

Unlike generic medicines where the active ingredients are identical, biosimilars – by definition – are not likely to be identical to the originator biologic. They are similar, but not the…

Gene therapy is a process in which exogenous genetic material is transferred into somatic cells to correct an inherited or acquired gene defect. Also, it is intended to introduce a…

For a better understanding of the lifecycle of a drug, consider the following aspects of the afterlives of APIs: where they go and what they do after having served their…

All normal or Newtonian fluids (air, water, oil, honey) follow the same scientific laws. On the other hand, there are also fluids that do not follow the Newtonian flow laws.…

A structural change in a gene that leads to a sudden and stable alteration in the genotype of a cell, virus, or organism. It is a heritable change in the…