Poor physiological fitness arising as a consequence of a
Thus, epidemiological studies and comprehensive meta-analyses of controlled randomized training studies have provided evidence that factors such as poor cardiorespiratory fitness, adiposity, insulin resistance
Most studies looking at the effect of physical activities on health have focused on the cardiovascular and metabolic effect of aerobic exercise training such as walking, jogging, running and
However, few studies have investigated the health effects of regular participation in a variety of sports and physical activities, which involves aerobic high-intensity training and anaerobic training, including sprints and specific actions with a high impact on muscles and bone, such as football, team handball, basketball
Football is a popular sport traditionally played as 11 against 11 (11 vs 11), but it is also conducted as small-sided games, such as 3 against 3 (3 vs 3), 4 vs 4, 5 vs 5 and 7 vs 7. It has been established that the aerobic demands in recreational football are roughly similar to those in elite football training with periods of near-maximal heart rate values.
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It has furthermore been shown that the activity profile during small-sided games is highly intermittent, with multiple turns, jumps
On this basis, it appears highly relevant to examine how effectively regular football training may affect cardiovascular and musculoskeletal factors of importance for health and physical performance.