How Are Drugs Used Clinically in Patients? The study of the therapeutic uses and effects of drugs in patients is called pharmacotherapeutics. The focus of pharmacotherapy is the patient, not…

Definition, Designing Technology and Mechanism  Antisense drugs are drugs that seek to block DNA transcription or RNA translation in order to moderate many disease processes. Antisense drugs consist of nucleotides…

Often called ‘‘complementary and alternative medicine,’’ this group of medical practices has also been termed ‘‘unconventional,’’ ‘‘unorthodox,’’ ‘‘unproven,’’ and even ‘‘quackery.’’ Because these terms have significant negative connotations, terms such as ‘‘alternative medicine’’ are preferred.…

Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are types of adverse drug events (ADEs). ADEs include ADRs, medication errors, and other drug-related problems. ADEs are the negative

Tolerance may be defined as either (1) the loss of effect over time to the same dose of a drug or (2) the need for more of a drug over…

A few individuals respond to drugs in a highly unusual and unpredictable manner, giving a response quantitatively much different than in the average patient. For example some patients may have…

The amendment was a response to the Thalidomide tragedy, in which thousands of children were born with birth defects as a result of their mothers taking thalidomide for morning sickness…

Spirits are alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solutions of volatile substances. Generally, the alcoholic concentration of spirits is rather high, usually over 60%. Because of the greater solubility of aromatic or volatile substances…

Liniments are alcoholic or oleaginous solutions or emulsions of various medicinal substances intended to be rubbed on the skin. Liniments with an alcoholic or hydroalcoholic vehicle are useful when rubefacient, counterirritant,…

[Syn. clinical investigation, clinical study] any systematic and carefully designed study on medicinal products in human subjects whether in patients or non-patient volunteers; the aim of a clinical trial is…